December 2021

Concurrent Evaluation of Implementation of National Food Security Act, 2013 in Andhra Pradesh

NIRDPR, CLPL Conduct Training Programme for Lawyers, Development Functionaries and Paralegal Volunteers on PVTGs

ToT cum Three-Week Certificate Programme on Risk-Based Internal Audit in RD

Analysis and Recommendations on the Public Distribution System during COVID-19

Webinar on How Gender Works: Intersections of Identities and Development Goals

Library Talks on Individual Capacity Building: Pedagogical and Andragogical Tools (from Trainer’s Perspective)

Executive Programme on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

Workshop cum ToT on Good Governance through Community Participation in Rural Development –  Tools and Techniques

NIRDPR Conducts Regional ToT on Social Audit of 15th Finance Commission Grant Utilisation

Workshops on District-Specific SBCC Planning and Implementation for Sustainability of ODF+ & JJM for Karnataka and Telangana States

Training of State Programme Coordinators and Young Fellows on the Project for Creating Model GP Clusters across India

NIRDPR Observes Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s Death Anniversary

Orientation of DRDOs and Addl. DRDOs on Model Mandal Samakhya Concept and Workshop on Development of Model Samakhya

Training Programme on Promotion and Dissemination of Technologies for People’s Action and Rural Development

SIRDs & ETCs Corner:

Achievement and Activity Report of SIRD&PR, Mizoram for the Year 2020-21

Concurrent Evaluation of Implementation of National Food Security Act, 2013 in Andhra Pradesh

Representational image

The Public Distribution System (PDS), which was started to manage food supplies during scarcity, has evolved as a system for the distribution of foodgrains at affordable prices. Over the years, PDS has become an important part of the government’s policy for the management of food economy in the country. PDS is supplemental in nature and is not intended to make available the entire requirement of any of the commodities distributed under it to a household or a section of the society. PDS is operated under the joint responsibility of the Central and State governments.

The Central government, through Food Corporation of India (FCI), has the responsibility for procurement, storage, transportation and bulk allocation of foodgrains to the State governments. The operational responsibility, including allocation within the State, identification of eligible families, issue of ration cards, distribution of foodgrains through fair price shop (FPS) and supervision of the functioning of FPSs, rests with the State governments. Under the PDS, commodities, namely wheat, rice and coarse grains are being allocated to some of the States/UTs for distribution. The States/UTs also distribute additional items of mass consumption such as sugar, pulses, edible oil, iodized salt, spices, etc. through the PDS outlets as per their requirement.

The NFSA, 2013 is an Act of the Parliament of India which aims to provide subsidised foodgrains to approximately two-thirds of the 1.2 billion population in India. It was signed into law on 12th September 2013, retroactive to 5th July 2013. 

The National Food Security Act, 2013 converts into legal entitlements for existing food security programmes of the Government of India. It includes the Midday Meal schemeIntegrated Child Development Services scheme and the Public Distribution System. Further, the NFSA 2013 recognises maternity entitlements. The Midday Meal Scheme and the Integrated Child Development Services scheme are universal in nature, whereas the PDS will reach about two-thirds of the population. The main objective of the NFSA is providing food and nutrition security to people by providing access to foodgrains at affordable prices. The Act provides for coverage of up to 75 per cent of the rural population and up to 50 per cent of the urban population for receiving subsidised foodgrains under the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), thus covering about two-thirds of the population. The eligible persons are entitled to receive 5 kg of foodgrains per person per month at subsidised prices for rice/wheat/coarse grains. The existing Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) households, which constitute the poorest of the poor, will continue to receive 35 kg of foodgrains per household per month at a highly subsidised price.

Since the enactment of the NFSA, the progress is being monitored by the Ministry mainly through official sources like periodic progress reports, regular meetings, field visits, etc. But the information regarding the exact implementation of the scheme on the ground is lacking. The Ministry has felt the need for an in-depth, inclusive and comprehensive monitoring of the implementation process on regular basis for adequate empirical evidence for the qualitative evaluation of the programme. Hence, concurrent evaluation is a tool to provide fairly good information of outputs and key outcome indicators on a quarterly basis with the main objectives of facilitating action for improved quality of implementation/service delivery and to serving the end beneficiaries with quality services.

The Ministry of Food, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution, Government of India has entrusted the National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj, Hyderabad to carry out a study on the Concurrent Evaluation and Monitoring of National Food Security Act 2013 in Andhra Pradesh for the years 2018-19 and 2019-20.

The study team during field visit and data collection (file)


The main objective of the concurrent evaluation was to assess the overall progress of implementation of NFSA (2013) in Andhra Pradesh and also measure as well as monitor the change it has brought in, specifically:

  • At systematic level: Assess and analyse the progress of implementation of various aspects of the NFSA 2013.
  • At beneficiary level: Evaluate the benefits of NFSA on the target groups to achieve the objectives of the NFSA.


The list of 2011 Census districts and villages/cities/towns constituted the sampling frame. The NSSO regions are demarcated based on homogeneity in cropping patterns, vegetation, climate, physical features, rainfall pattern, etc.  A multi-stage sample design was adopted for the concurrent evaluation. Districts/cities/towns/villages/urban wards and households form the first, second and third stages of sampling, respectively. Therefore, the NSSO region, which is a group of districts within a state that is similar in respect of agro-climatic features, was randomly selected using the equal probability approach as the first stage sample unit (FSU). In each village, 15 sample NFSA beneficiary households (i.e., 10 PHH & 5 AAY) were selected using a systematic random sampling method.

  • In each quarter, three to four districts each from an NSS region were randomly selected using the equal probability approach as a first stage sample unit. Within the State, districts were selected randomly in such a way that not more than one district is covered per NSSO region per quarter.
  • Village/Urban ward (where FPS is located) formed the second stage units of selection from which the sample households were selected.
  • Five units (four villages and an urban ward where FPS is located) from rural/urban in each district (based on the urban-rural distribution of NFSA population in the State) were randomly selected.
  • In each village, 15 sample NFSA beneficiary households (i.e., 10 PHH and 5 AAY) were selected using a systematic random sampling method. Adequate representation of ST/SC, poor and vulnerable population was ensured in the sample.
  • In each village, in addition to 15 NFSA households, one fair price shop was also covered.
  • At district level, inspection of one godown and interaction with District level Vigilance Committee, District Grievance Redressal Officer (DGRO) and one District level Food and Civil Supplies Officer were undertaken.


  • The sample is too small to attribute the results/findings to the population. The size of the sample needs to be increased so as to make it a true representation of the population.
  • Resources, mainly time and money, have been a constraint.
  • Selection of the sample was done by the programme implementing agency. Hence, the best performers only could have been identified by them. So it is difficult to generalise based on the experiences and observations.


At Household level

The selection of the beneficiary and issue of ration cards in the State has been made transparent. Information on these aspects has been made available in the public domain. Since the concept of ‘Below Poverty Line’ has been discontinued in NFSA and a broader concept of Priority Household has been introduced, the State has simplified the exclusion criteria to four broad points such that no genuine beneficiary is excluded.


  • The genuine beneficiaries are identified based on Exclusion Criteria devised by the State Government. 
  • The Exclusion Criteria that have been defined by the State Government for the identification of PHH beneficiaries are: 
  • Without considering salary, all permanent employees of Government or Government aided Organisations or Government sponsored/Government-owned organisations/Boards/Corporations/Deemed organisations and all families remitting Income Tax/Service Tax/VAT/Professional Tax
  • Three hectares of dryland or equivalent irrigation land in rural areas or urban areas, families owning self-owned pakka houses with a dimension of not more than 750 square feet 
  • Families owning four-wheeler other than those owning self-driven commercial vehicle either tractor, maxicab, taxi, etc., for livelihood purpose
  • Those who are not within the income limit of 1,20,000
  • Those consume more than 200 units of electricity

With respect to considering the eldest woman as head of the household, Chittoor district ranks first with 91.53 per cent among all the districts followed by Srikakulam (91.50 per cent), Prakasam (91.30 per cent), Krishna (90.04 per cent), Kadapa (90.00 per cent) and others while Kurnool ranks the last with 48.28 per cent.

A fair price shop visited by the study team


More than 80 per cent of the total ration cards in the districts belonged to priority households (PHH). The per cent of silent ration cards is highest (12.00) in Nellore followed by Guntur (10.00), Visakhapatnam and Prakasam (9.00), Krishna, Kadapa and Kurnool (8.00) and the is in East Godavari and Vizianagaram districts at 5.00 per cent. Information with respect to the eligible but left out beneficiaries is not available in any of the districts.

More than 98 per cent of the fair price shops in the districts is Electronic Point of Sale shops (ePoS). The percentage of beneficiaries that have collected the monthly eligible ration during the reference period is more than 85 per cent in all districts. A good majority of the beneficiaries are fully aware of ration card eligibility criteria and the addition and deletion of names in the ration card.


The beneficiaries were fully aware of their entitlement to foodgrains/commodities and their share as well as the prices of the commodities. There were no complaints regarding the quality of foodgrains, under-weighing or overcharging for commodities.

The beneficiaries were quite satisfied with the timing and duration of the opening of PDS shops. The beneficiaries were fully satisfied with the quality of foodgrains and grain preference. All the beneficiaries in all the 65 FPSs that were visited have informed that not even once did they skip an opportunity to buy foodgrains from the PDS. But there are instances at some of the FPSs where the beneficiaries are not interested to collect foodgrains from the FPS because they grow better quality rice. In such instances, there is a possibility of corruption creeping into the system.

The beneficiaries are able to access the FPSs very easily for collecting foodgrains, as most of the FPSs are well connected by pucca roads and their houses are within the range of 0.10 to 1.00 km from the FPSs. During the festival months, the range of commodities distributed are more and the distribution time and days are being extended as festival tohfa.


Digitisation of beneficiary details and seeding of the Aadhaar number and bank account in ration card have already been completed in all districts in Andhra Pradesh. But seeding of mobile number has been possible only for those having mobile phones.

Use of E-PoS at the FPS has made the distribution of foodgrains very easy, fast and transparent. The same was expressed by the beneficiaries, dealers and officials. Barring a few occasions due to poor connectivity during peak periods, the e-PoS machine is functioning exceedingly well at the FPS level.

The beneficiaries in all the districts of Andhra Pradesh have expressed their preference to collect foodgrains than to receive cash subsidy. The main reason for non-preference of cash subsidy is the prevailing prices of the foodgrains in the open market, which are too high than the cash subsidy. The other is the risk of misusing cash by diverting to unproductive purposes.

In none of the FPSs, the dealers were involved in any of the activities like banking correspondent, CSC operations, digital payments, etc.


Overall, it is observed that the distribution of PDS foodgrains ensured the food security of the poor. The beneficiaries expressed the need to increase the entitlement limits of the foodgrains that are already in distribution and the need to bring more essential commodities like kerosene, cooking oil, etc., under the ambit of PDS.

From dealers’ point of view, it is expressed that the commission per bag could be increased, delivery of foodgrains has to be made through the department and an alternative thumb impression facility has to be introduced at FPS level.


It is observed that the average tonnage per fair price shop is 100 quintals and the average population covered per shop is 1,200 to 2,500 persons (Minimum of 600 cards in rural areas and 1,500 in urban areas with exception to hilly and tribal colonies).

  • Commission rate for foodgrains and other commodities: The retail commission fixed by the State government for food grain distribution is 70 per quintal.  An additional margin of 17 per quintal for the issue of foodgrains through POS devices.  70 per quintal retail commission has been fixed for distribution of toor dal (70 + 17 per quintal).

The following functions are available for use in the PoS

  • e-KYC, Best Finger Detection and Fusion finger
  • Seed or update Aadhaar/Mobile and obtain consent from beneficiaries regarding use of Aadhaar
  • Non-integrated electronic weighing machine (Bluetooth/Cable) at godowns and FPSs
  • Local language interface – voice-over/printed in local language
  • Total transactions in the district are reflected in the State and Central Portals (Annavitaran) as well
  • There is a system in place at the district level to assess the Silent Ration Cards (RCs against which foodgrains are not lifted for three consecutive months)
  • State-level portability is already implemented to address the issues of foodgrains allocation and distribution between FPS dealers and consumers that move out of their villages on migration.
  • Ownership of FPS dealers is mostly private in nature. There are a few shops maintained by consumer cooperative societies. All FPS shops are well maintained, accessible and well connected. Cleanliness is also maintained in and around FPSs.

Table 1: Rates and quantities of scheduled commodities that are distributed to beneficiaries of various categories of beneficiaries in Andhra Pradesh under PDS

S. No.Scheduled CommodityScale of DistributionCost of Commodity to be remitted by the FPS Dealer per Kg in ₹Dealers commission per Kg in ₹End consumer price per Kg in ₹
1.Rice to Priority  / White cards5 Kg. per Unit in the ration card0.300.701.00
2.Rice to AAY cards35 Kg. per card (irrespective of the number of members
in the family)
3.Rice to Annapurna cards10 Kg. per cardFree of cost
4.Sugar1 Kg. per AAY card only13.350.1513.50
½ Kg. per ANP / WAP / PHH card19.850.1520.00
5.Wheat Atta1 Kg. per card15.501.0016.50
6.Red gram dal2 Kg.  per BPL Card39.300.7040.00
7.Ragi (Millet)Up to 3 Kg. per card (in lieu of Rice)0.300.701.00
8.Jowar (Millet)Up to 3 Kg. per card (in lieu of Rice)   

From the online records and also the manual registers that were maintained at the MLSPs, it is observed that there is no delay in receiving of foodgrains and there was an arrangement of doorstep delivery of foodgrains to the FPS.

It is observed that the display of information and transparency aspects as per NFSA guidelines are partially maintained at FPS.

FPS automation is fully done. Almost all the FPSs are well equipped with PoS devices/e-PoS machines and internet connectivity. Though initially sale of non-PDS items by the FPSs was allowed by the department, subsequently the provision was withdrawn. However, some FPS dealers were seen selling petty fancy and kirana items under the pretext of overcoming the shortage of coins and small change.

The margin/profit and viability of FPS is dependent on the number of ration cards allotted and the ownership, activities and performance of FPS dealer. The income of the FPS dealers could be enhanced if the FPS dealers perform other operations like banking correspondent, common service centre agent, and/or engage in the sale of non-PDS items, etc. However, the FPS dealers of the FPSs that have been visited as a part of the random verification in the four sample districts of Andhra Pradesh are confined to the sale and distribution of NFSA foodgrains only.

It is evident that the FPS owners’ income is from two main sources i.e., the commission obtained from the distribution of foodgrains and the sale of gunny bags. In some of the urban pockets, the cardholders who migrate in search of employment and livelihoods avail the facility of intrastate portability and this too enhances the income of the dealers.

Though the e-PoS device has increased the convenience of FPS Dealers, the problem of connectivity is still prevailing in some of the remote rural and tribal villages.

The expenditure of the FPS owner is varied and it also depends on the number of ration cards allotted. The expenditure on the maintenance of the fair price shop would be lower if the dealer is operating from his/her own building, and engaging family labour towards assisting him/her in the operations. The FPS dealers have to bear the unloading charges at their end. The unloading charges are in the range of 8 to 10 per bag depending on the locality (rural or urban).



In an attempt to ensure smooth and uninterrupted delivery of foodgrains to the beneficiaries, the Civil Supplies Corporation is following the following food calendar/cycle:

1st to 15th of every month        =          Distribution of foodgrains to all categories of cardholders

(For those beneficiaries whose biometric authentication has failed, a date is announced for distribution of foodgrains)

11th to 18th of every month      =          Payment to the Corporation by the FPS dealers towards ration for next month (through NEFT/RTGS). However,  the FPS dealers are allowed to make the
payment till the last day of second stage transport.

20th to 30th of every month      =          Doorstep delivery of foodgrains to the Fair Price Shops



STAGE I:         FCO godown/buffer stock godown to Mandal Level Stock Point (MLSP).

STAGE II:        MLSP to FPSs

The route and time of travel from the MLSP to the FPS are geotagged. In the event of deviation in the standard route, alerts are received at the offices of the Joint Collector, the District Supplies Officer, the District Manager and other officials of the Civil Supplies department. Explanation is sought for the violation and action is initiated against the erring officials if the reason is found unsatisfactory. 

  • Monthly distribution cycle for foodgrains is followed in the State i.e., foodgrains pertaining to distribution for the next month are allocated and delivered at the doorstep of the FPS during the second fortnight of the previous month so that foodgrains are available at the FPSs for distribution to ration cardholders from 1st of the distribution month.  It is observed that the FPSs are mapped to the nearest godown and all godowns at district/mandal level are automated (ePoS device, computer, printer, CCTVs and UPS, etc.) and internet connectivity/power is also ensured.
  • Closing balance (CB) in the wholesale depot is closed once the lifting of monthly entitlement is completed by the fair price shops tagged/attached to the depot. Upon completion of the distribution of foodgrains as per entitlements to ration cardholders for that particular month, CB will be auto uploaded in the case of POS shops. In non-POS shops, card-wise transactions are uploaded through IVRS by FPS owner and RC-wise details by the food inspector concerned.
  • Allocation orders are generated online by the system from State level to Fair Price Shops. The closing balance of FPSs is received automatically and centralised allotment is generated after considering the CB closure by the shops.  Wholesale CB is also being received online. 
  • The wholesale transporters selected through tendering, lift monthly NFSA foodgrains (rice) from FCI godown to Mandal Supply Points (MLSPs).  Thereafter, foodgrains are delivered to fair price shops by retail transporters and in places where retail transporters have not been finalised, fair price shop owners lift foodgrains from wholesale godowns for which they are provided transportation and hamali charges as notified by the State Government.  Adequate manpower is available to manage the supply chain at both mandal and district levels.
  • Stock position of all godowns and FPSs is captured online in a real-time manner.  Delivery orders, release orders, truck challans, gate passes, etc., for NFSA commodities are generated from the system and they are available on transparency portals. 
  • Payment acknowledgement is generated online. Details of allocation, off-take and distribution are reported correctly on the NFSA dashboard. The allotment and lifting statistics are available on the ANNAVITARAN portal.
  • The district and/or mandal level godowns are maintained by the State Civil Supplies Corporation. At a majority of locations, the MLSPs are being operated from the Corporation’s own buildings. Otherwise, the storage and supply have been outsourced to private operators.
  • Three kinds of godowns are present in the State: Corporation’s godowns, Agricultural Market Committee godowns and Private Godowns (those operated and maintained by private persons/individuals).
  • The godowns owned by the Civil Supplies Corporation are modernised and well maintained with restrooms, drinking water facilities and first-aid kits.
  • The conditions at the godowns operated and maintained by the other agencies need to be improved.
  • Whether a godown is owned or private or cooperative, it has to operate/maintain the commodities as per the standard procedures of the Food Corporation of India (FCI) and Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC).
  • No delay was observed in receiving and dispatching stock from godown to FPS.

Sufficient storage capacity has been observed in all the districts. Each godown has the capacity to hold stocks that are sufficient for more than two months and this has ensured an uninterrupted supply of foodgrains to the FPSs and thereby to the beneficiaries.

Hamali charges: The hamalis are being paid 95 per tonne towards loading and unloading of foodgrains at the MLSPs. Each hamali is getting around 5,000 to 15,000 depending upon the volume of handling and number of hamalis.


As per the NFSA, 2013, the States will have the flexibility to use the existing machinery or make a separate arrangement.

Transparency portals and grievance redressal mechanisms – Transparency Portals and Online Grievance Registration system/Toll-free helpline numbers (1967/1800-series) are available in all the sample districts.

UTILIZATION OF TOLL-FREE HELPLINE AND AWARENESS ABOUT STATE FOOD COMMISSION AND DISTRICT GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL OFFICER: Many of the beneficiaries are not aware of the toll-free number nor, they are familiar with the role of the institutions that are established for the purpose such as District Grievance Redressal Officer (DGRO) or State Food Commission (SFC)

SOURCE OF INFORMATION REGARDING TOLL-FREE HELPLINE: Most of the beneficiaries that are aware of the toll-free number have come to know of it through media publicity (TV and or newspapers). In a majority of FPSs that were visited, the number was neither displayed nor displayed prominently.

ANY GRIEVANCES ADDRESSED: Every Monday, ‘MEEKOSM’ – a grievance redressal forum is held at the district collectorate in the presence of the district officers of all departments and any person with any kind of an issue including those related to PDS could get their issues resolved then and there itself. These grievances are being addressed very promptly.


State Government is required to set up Vigilance Committees at the State, district, mandal and FPS levels. Vigilance committees at the FPS level have not yet been constituted in Andhra Pradesh. A majority of the members of the district level vigilance committees are not clear about their roles and responsibilities. Nevertheless, in all the districts the need and role of vigilance committees have been very minimal as felt by the evaluation team based on the assessment of the other parameters and opinion and feedback of the beneficiaries.


  1. The criteria for the selection of beneficiaries should be reworked.
  2. The list of beneficiaries should be reviewed every 3-6 months after a thorough tracking/monitoring of the history of the beneficiary with respect to collection of foodgrains from any of the FPSs in the State. The names of beneficiaries failing to collect foodgrains for three months for reasons other than health and migration may be deleted.
  3. Ration card should be delinked from housing/fee reimbursement/pensions/Arogyasri schemes. Most of the beneficiaries that don’t collect foodgrains are still holding on to the ration cards just to avail benefits under these schemes. Presence of such cardholders give a lot of opportunity and scope for corruption in the implementation of NFSA, 2013 and corruption in Andhra Pradesh is mainly because of this issue.
  4. The monthly entitlements of the foodgrains may be increased from the current levels.
  5. The department may consider increasing the range of commodities that are under PDS by bringing more food items like cooking oils, tamarind, and other pulses (Bengal gram, black gram, green gram, etc.) chillies, which are of daily use. This would certainly provide a lot of relief to the poor. Since the prices of onions in the open market are highly unstable and at times are sold at ₹ 100 per kg, they also must be supplied through FPSs. This would enhance the income of the FPS dealers too.
  6. The monthly income of the FPS dealers is not sufficient to maintain themselves (especially the rural FPSs, as the number of cards per FPS is small and the beneficiaries too migrate to other places for livelihood). Hence, the FPS dealers may be allowed to sell non-PDS commodities too to enhance the sustainability of their operations. This could also bring down the compulsion to indulge in corruption.
  7. At present, the FPS dealers are distributing foodgrains, iodised salt, palmolein oil and other items towards ICDS and MDM schemes and also to jails and model schools. Though there is a proposal to pay commission to the dealers @ ₹ 129.20/MT of rice for MDM and ₹ 200/MT of rice for ICDS, still they are not being paid any commission for this activity. This may be settled immediately.
  8. The FPS level vigilance committees may be constituted as the NFSA, 2013 envisages vigilance committees at four levels i.e., State, district, mandal/block and FPS levels (though the study team did not find any reason to constitute vigilance committees at the FPS level).
  9. Members should not be appointed/nominated just because of political affiliations or proximity to the powers but should be on merit. Education, intelligence, comprehension and understanding should be considered while constituting the district or mandal or FPS level vigilance committees.
  10. Members of the vigilance committees should be sensitised about the NFSA, 2013 guidelines and other parameters in practice in the State.

Dr. G. V. Krishna Lohi Das
Assistant Professor (Sr. Scale)
Centre for Wage Employment & Livelihoods, NIRDPR

NIRDPR, CLPL conduct Training Programme for Lawyers, Development Functionaries and Paralegal Volunteers on PVTGs

Smt. Tamilisai Soundararajan, Hon’ble Governor of Telangana and Lieutenant Governor, Puducherry addressing the gathering

The National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj (NIRDPR) and the Centre for Learning and Practising Law (CLPL) conducted a collaborative training programme on Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) for lawyers, development functionaries and paralegal people. In all, 70 participants attended the flagship training programme titled ‘Lex de Futuro’ (Law is the future) conducted during 26th – 29th November, 2021 at NIRDPR, Hyderabad. 

This was the first-of-its-kind training programme for the lawyers, development functionaries and paralegal volunteers from Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups. The programme was planned as an interactive session between lawyers and development functionaries with the objectives of i) providing the skill set to practice law for the lawyers and paralegal volunteers of PVTGs, ii) creating awareness on fundamental rights, and constitutional safeguards of tribal people, and iii) providing the knowledge of PESA Act, Forest Rights Act and Developmental schemes implemented in tribal areas.

Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, IAS, Director General, NIRDPR addressing the gathering

Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, IAS, Director General, NIRDPR welcomed Smt. Tamilisai Soundararajan, Hon’ble Governor of Telangana and Lieutenant Governor, Puducherry, Shri Surendra Mohan, IAS, Secretary to Governor, Smt. Raja Rajeshwari Taman, Director, CLPL and Shri Shashi Bhushan, FA & DDG (i/c), NIRDPR, Shri A. P. Suresh, Lawyer, High Court, Founder & Executive Member of CLPL, for this training for PVTGs, the most underprivileged people.  

The Director General addressed the gathering and said that it is befitting that a training programme is organised to highlight the plight of PVTGs, who are really disentitled and backward. “In spite of the constitutional safeguards provided to the PVTGs, still, they are vulnerable. The PVTGs population is decreasing, such as the Great Andamanese. They are still living in the pre-agricultural stage of livelihood. Hon’ble Governor has chosen to highlight the poor quality of education and health, anaemia, nutrition issues among the PVTGs. In Odisha, 61 per cent of the women are suffering from anaemia. The incidence of genetically inherited diseases such as sickle cell anaemia is extremely high among the PVTGs and there are hardly any efforts to address their issues,” he said and complimented the Governor for taking this initiative and bringing the issues into the limelight. “The basic approach is self-governance through Gram Sabha. In that direction, PESA Act, 1996 is a landmark, which talks about taking care of the PVTGs and the tribal groups in general, in schedule areas,” the DG added.

Smt. Tamilisai Soundararajan, Hon’ble Governor of Telangana appreciated the effort taken by NIRDPR and CLPL to organise the training programme and reach out to the most disadvantaged and marginalised PVTGs. She recalled Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s statement that the progress of the community is measured by the degree of progress, which women have achieved.

“I am very happy that we are focusing on the practical application of law as a means of livelihood, and safeguarding their rights and life, the tribal people themselves. The tribal people should not think that they have left out of the mainstream These people face constraints from childhood because of their social and living backgrounds. Their education, nutrition, higher studies etc., will be taken care of when they practice the law. After 72 years of adopting its own Constitution, India has achieved a major milestone in this regard. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, who is the key person in framing the Constitution, special praise,” she said.

Further, the Governor quoted Dr. Ambedkar’s statement that, “Freedom of the mind is the real freedom. A person whose mind is not free, though he may not be in chains, he is the slave, not a free man.” 

“The country celebrates 15th November, 2021 as ‘Tribal Pride Day’ to celebrate the birthday of Shri Birsa Munda, the great tribal leader and freedom fighter, who wanted the Indians to free themselves from the kingdom of the queen. Being a tribal leader, he was bold enough to make such a statement. Whether the tribal people have got the freedom even after 72 years of Independence remains a pertinent question,” she said.  

Shri Surendra Mohan, IAS, Secretary to Governor, mentioned an initiative taken up by the Raj Bhawan to reach out to the most disadvantaged tribal people. “In this regard, a team visited a few tribal areas and recognised the tribal people’s longing for help,” he said.

Dr. Subhendu Mohapatra, IAS, Project Officer, ITDA, Khandamahal district, Odisha said that the Government of Odisha is committed to tribal development. “Although we face many problems related to development issues in tribal areas, we are finding solutions with the help of the tribal people and lawyers. The Government of Odisha has drafted rules for the effective implementation of PESA Act and soon a declaration will be made. The rules will help the tribal people to develop themselves, with their culture and traditions,” he said.

Dr. S. N. Rao, Associate Professor, Centre for Equity and Social Development, NIRDPR spoke about the self-governance and cultural and livelihood practices of PVTGs. “PVTGs have a lot of variations in their practices as the tribal groups are widely different culturally.  There are five PVTGs in the Andaman Islands, namely Great Andamanese, Jarawa, Onge, Sentinelese and Shompen. In the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, their rate of population is declining highly. In 1858, the number of Great Andamanese were estimated at nearly 3500; in 1901, their number fell to 625. According to the 2001 Census, the Great Andamanese has been reduced to 43 whereas Jarawas were 241, Onges were 96, Sentineleses were 39 and Shompens were 398 in number. Their livelihoods are at stake due to factors such as shrinking forests, environmental changes, new forest conservation policies, hindrances in collecting non-timber forest products and exploitation by middlemen as a consequence of their lack of awareness about the value of such products,” he said.

Dr. Rubina Nusrat, Assistant Professor, Centre for Equity and Social Development, NIRDPR presented a session on PESA and FRA Acts. Giving a brief historical evolution of the PESA and FRA Acts, she clarified the difference of the concept of the village in both Acts. She explained the concept of Gram Sabha and emphasised the powers delegated to Gram Sabhas in PESA Act. The challenges for the full implementation of the PESA Act were also discussed. 

Shri A. P. Suresh, High Court Lawyer and Founder of CLPL delivered a lecture on Civil Law and Criminal Law.

Later, Dr. G. Narendra Kumar distributed the certificates to the participants. Dr. S. N. Rao, Associate Professor, Centre for Equity and Social Development (CESD), NIRDPR proposed vote of thanks.

ToT cum Three-Week Certificate Programme on Risk Based Internal Audit in RD Programmes

Shri Nagendra Nath Sinha, IAS, Secretary, Ministry of Rural Development (4th from left) releasing the training materials for certificate course on internal audit. Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, IAS, Director General, NIRDPR (5th from left) and Shri Shashi Bhushan, FA, DDG (i/c) & Director, CIARD NIRDPR (3rd from left) are also seen.

The Centre for Internal Audit in Rural Development (CIARD), NIRDPR organised a 21-day ToT cum Certificate Programme for Master Trainers and Certified Internal Auditors on Risk-Based Internal Audit in Rural Development Programmes from 22nd November to 11th December, 2021.

Background of the Training Programme

Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) has an outlay of more than Rs.1,33,000 crore for carrying out various Rural Development Programmes like MGNREGS, NRLM, DDU-GKY, PMGSY, NSAP, PMAY-G, etc. With the contribution of States, the outlay is even higher. It is felt that there is a need to develop a very strong and robust accountability framework for all its programmes. Internal Audit is one such mechanism of accountability to improve the effectiveness of the schemes. MoRD is framing policies and insisting on regular monitoring of schemes and rigorous internal controls within the Department of Rural Development, GoI and implementing agencies. As part of it, several initiatives have been taken by the DoRD to strengthen Internal Audit. The DoRD has set up an Internal Audit Wing (IAW) in the office of Chief Controller of Accounts, MoRD, which undertakes timely field verification and mitigation of risks involved in the implementation of MoRD schemes. For this purpose, IAW recruited trained internal auditors and capacity building of these internal auditors was entrusted to NIRDPR. NIRDPR along with the Institute of Internal Auditors, India with the consultation of O/o CCA designed a three-week certificate course on Risk-Based Internal Audit in RD Programmes. The SOP on the training of internal auditors was prepared in which the eligibility criteria of the participants, information on course modules and field practicum were circulated to all States & SIRDs.

To strengthen the internal audit function, an Expert Advisory Group (EAG) was constituted by MoRD and based on the recommendations of the EAG, the Centre for Internal Audit in Rural Development (CIARD) was established at NIRDPR in 2020 to support IAW in capacity building, liaison with States and provide guidance to establish internal audit units at State level and to study the status of internal audits in DoRD schemes. EAG also recommended creating a pool of 5000 internal auditors across India comprising retired and serving Central/State government officers from the background of Accounts, Engineering and Rural Development, who will undergo the training on Risk-Based Internal Audit. After the completion of the course, the participants will be empanelled with O/o Chief Controller of Accounts. Once empanelled, the MoRD and the State governments can use their services for the conduct of internal audit of RD programmes as per the requirement. For this purpose, NIRDPR will provide training to Master Trainers and the same will be done by SIRDs at States in cascading mode. Amendments were also made to SOP on training programmes based on experiences from previous three-week training programmes.

In this context, CIARD had announced ToT Programme for Master Trainers and received 34 nominations from Jammu & Kashmir, New Delhi, Telangana, Tripura and Uttarakhand. After scrutiny of nominations, only eight members were found eligible for ToT whereas the remaining were found eligible for the certificate course.  Thus, the ToT programme was converted into a ToT cum certificate programme for 24 participants i.e., eight master trainers and 16 certified internal auditors.

The programme was coordinated by the CIARD team comprising Shri Shashi Bhushan, Director CIARD, Dr. U. Hemantha Kumar, Course Director, Ms. H. Shashi Rekha, Course Co-coordinator, Shri S. V. Narayana Reddy, Course Co-coordinator and Ms. Shirisha Reddy, Training Manager.

Objectives of the programme

  • To discuss the need, concept and approaches of Risk-Based Internal Audit (RBIA).
  • To make the participant understand the provisions of rural development programmes with reference to internal audit
  • To make the participants adapt the methodology of the Risk-Based Internal Audit to RD programmes
  • To impart skills to train the internal auditors in RD programmes.

Course Modules

Keeping in view of the above objectives, the ToT course comprised the following five modules with 39 sessions and two tests, one on Internal Audit functions and the second on RD programmes.

  1. Understanding the internal audit manual of MoRD and basic concepts of Accounting and Bookkeeping
  2. Introduction to Internal Audit: Basic Concepts and Understanding the methodologies of conducting Risk-Based Internal Audit which includes Control Environment, Risk Management, exercises on report writing, etc.
  3. Overview of Rural Development programmes and application of Internal Audit to RD programmes – Guidelines of MoRD flagship programmes and preparation and presentation of Risk Registers by participants as group work which includes identification of risks involved in programme/scheme implementation process, impact of those risks and mitigating mechanism
  4. Training methodologies – Imparting skills on delivering the sessions and different methodologies which can be used in trainings.
  5. Field practicum – Where hands-on experience will be provided to participants by conducting Risk-Based Internal Audits at implementing agencies of different programmes in the supervision of IAW consultants. Findings/paras raised in the report will be presented by the participants which will be evaluated by expert evaluators from the panel constituted by IAW, O/o CCA, MoRD.

#Except for Training Methodologies, the remaining modules are the same for the ToT and certificate course.

Field Practicum

The field-visit of this programme was unique and useful in the sense that the participants would be directly involved in carrying out internal audit of various programmes wherein they have been given hands-on training by expert consultants from IAW of MoRD. For the purpose of field practicum, the participants were divided into five groups. Each group headed by the consultant, IAW was assigned to conduct the internal audit of an RD Scheme. After returning from the field, five teams prepared draft internal audit reports along with key documents/evidence and PPTs on their field observations under the supervision of the team leaders concerned to present before expert evaluators.

  • The five teams made presentations on audit observations of their field visit in the  presence of expert evaluators designated by MoRD i.e.,  Shri Vivek Anand, Controller of Accounts and Shri Madanlal, Member of Expert Panel. The presentations and each participant were evaluated based on content, subject knowledge and presentation skills.
  • Each Master Trainer was given 5 to 10 minutes to deliver the session on any topic relating to this certificate course and evaluation of Master Trainers was done by CIARD Team.

Assessment of Participants

The overall assessment was done on the basis of participation in classroom, performance in two tests, participation in field visits, and marks obtained in presentations on field observations. An overall score of 60 per cent was needed to pass in certificate course. Except for two participants, all eight master trainers and 14 certified internal auditors scored 60 per cent and above.


The valedictory of the programme was held at S K Rau Hall, NIRDPR, on 11th December, 2021. Shri Nagendra Nath Sinha, IAS, Secretary, MoRD, attended as Chief Guest. Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, IAS, Director General, NIRDPR, Shri Shashi Bhushan, DDG i/c, NIRDPR & Director, CIARD, team leaders from IAW, Head i/c, CIARD along with CIARD Staff members also attended the valedictory. The Director General highlighted the role of the CIARD in training the master trainers, who in turn, will train the certified internal auditors at the respective SIRDs.

The updated volume-I & II of learning materials for the three-week certificate programme were released by the Chief Guest Shri Nagendra Nath Sinha, IAS, Secretary, MoRD. At the request of the chief guest, the participants expressed their views on learning material, the course design and the methodology of training, including the practical training and how it was helpful in discharging their responsibilities for the effective implementation of the various programmes. Director, CIARD presented the major findings of the field practicum.  

In his address, Shri Nagendra Nath Sinha congratulated the participants for the successful completion of the three-week course and advised them to look into new areas of risk during the internal audit. “Technical competence is not enough, it’s the awakening of the sense of responsibility; if you are not able to do it, mere technical competence is the system for disaster. Please raise the moral sense of responsibility of the participants and trainees so that they are aware of the responsibilities for the tasks undertaken by them. This will bring purity in the administration of the rural development programmes and ensure that the benefits are reaching the poor and disabled. All the participants should treat this as a homage to the nation and as a nation-building exercise,” he said.

Distribution of participation certificates was done by the Secretary, MoRD, Director General, NIRDPR and Director, CIARD. The programme was concluded with the vote of thanks by Head i/c, CIARD.

Analysis and Recommendations on the Public Distribution System during COVID-19

The Public Distribution System in India continues to be a universal solution for ensuring essential foodgrains at affordable prices to the poor and the vulnerable sections of the population, who spend a bulk of consumption expenditure on purchasing foodgrains. It stabilises open market prices of foodgrains and ensures an able remunerative price to the farmers.

This initiative became all the more relevant in the recent past with COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant lockdown in the country. As schools closed and the mid-day meal programme suffered a setback, the PDS remained the only way out for the survival of millions.

It is to be understood that food availability is only an aspect of food security, though an important one. The others are economic access to food and its absorption by people for better nourishment. It is here that India has faced its biggest challenge and paradox. Despite witnessing a buoyant economic growth in recent years, around one-third of India‘s population, i.e. 400 million people, still live below the poverty line (in 2010) as per World Bank’s definition of USD 1.25/day.

A study funded by the Indian Council of Social science Research (ICSSR) was conducted during 2020-2021 and interesting findings were observed during the analysis of data collected from Nalgonda and Medak districts of Telangana.

During the financial year 2020-21, Rs.3679.82 crore (as on 31.12.2020) had been released to State governments as Central assistance to meet the expenditure incurred on inter-State movement of foodgrains and fair price shop dealers’ margins. Such an arrangement had been made for the first time under NFSA (National Food Security Act). Under the erstwhile TPDS (Targeted Public Distribution System), State governments were required to either meet this expenditure on their own or pass it on to beneficiaries (except AAY beneficiaries).

As a part of the efforts made under TPDS reforms to modernise the functioning of TPDS and to bring transparency & efficiency in its operations, end-to-end computerisation of TPDS operations was launched in 2018 and it is slated to be completed by 31st March, 2022. The Aadhaar seeding of beneficiaries with their Ration Cards has already been completed by the respective States/UTs.

Also as an integral part of the computerisation scheme, States/UTs have installed electronic Point of Sale (ePoS) devices at all Fair Price Shops (FPSs) for transparent distribution of food grains through electronic transactions and also with biometric/Aadhaar authentication of beneficiaries.

In November 2020, more than 91.8 per cent i.e., 4.94 lakh of the total 5.4 lakh FPSs in the country were using these devices for the distribution of food grains to NFSA beneficiaries. Based on the above digitisation, the One Nation One Ration Card (ONORC) plan for nationwide portability of ration cards was launched under NFSA. Until now, the national portability of ration cards under the ONORC plan has been seamlessly enabled in all 34 States/UTs.

Recommendations for PDS during COVID-19:

As reflected from the study, only part of the consumption needs was met by the PDS. For the rest, the rural population already enduring the aftermath of the pandemic is struggling to meet the daily consumption needs.

Although Telangana tops the SHG and Bank linkages, it has been observed that most of the loans sanctioned by banks are not utilised for the purpose for which they are sanctioned but used in securing the basic consumption needs. The banks get back 100 per cent of the amount loaned through the SHG and hence, they do not delve into the utilisation needs. In order to meet the actual requirements and tide over the current crisis, the PDS has to be revamped.

The government must increase the allocation of foodgrains under BPL cards equivalent to Antyodaya cards for rice, particularly as per monthly allocation. Most AAY households suffice their needs whereas BPL families have to buy the food grains at market prices. Secondly, ration card necessity must be essentially de-linked to other benefits and schemes.

In Panchayats with APL population and strong own source revenue, it is observed that even those who do not take foodgrains or can afford foodgrains from the market are keeping and using the ration card due to the linkage with other schemes. This was mostly observed during a field visit to some of the known Gram Panchayats like Ralegaon Siddhi in Maharashtra.

Thirdly, as we brace ourselves for the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic driven by Omicron and schools are being shut down again, it is recommended that the Atma Nirbhar Bharat Scheme, which was launched only for two months, be reinstated for six months from January onwards.

In case of no ration card or unclear thumb impression, either iris verification may be used to give away PDS ration. Otherwise, even a CCTV camera or a common mobile phone may be allowed to be used for the distribution of grains. The effort should be to ensure that none in this land of plenty sleep in hunger.

A communication strategy may be devised to disseminate information to the 2.5 lakh Gram Panchayats, Samitis and Zilla Parishads to ensure that the government benefits are rolled out and equitably distributed to the needy. It is believed that once the godowns put to use the grain lying within, the procurement of grains lying in different mandies will also be ensured.

Lastly, it is recommended that the locally available pulses and millets be given precedence for distribution against rice and wheat. Wheat taken in lower quantity in southern States must be replaced by other local varieties.

In another study of villages under PESA, it was pointed out that too much rice given under AAY is making the tribal population lethargic and reticent as it was more than needed. Therefore, in the days when the Census survey be initiated, relevant sections may be added to the survey tool to address these issues.

Dr. Akanksha Shukla
Associate Prof., and Head (i/c),
Centre for Development Documentation and Communication, NIRDPR

Webinar on How Gender Works: Intersections of Identities and Development Goals

The fifth webinar of the Roundtable Series titled “How Gender Works: Intersections of Identities and Development Goals” was organised on the 17th December, 2021 by the Delhi Branch of NIRDPR. The programme was part of an ongoing webinar series titled “Evidence-Based Policy and Action Roundtable: Consultations and Dialogues for Holistic Rural Development” which is being conducted to facilitate cross-learning, evidence sharing, plan actionable interventions, develop a strong monitoring framework, and generate critical policy and concept notes. The programme was inaugurated by Dr. G. Narendra Kumar,  IAS, Director General, NIRDPR, who emphasised on the need to strengthen gender planning and explore why India is still lagging in mainstreaming the implementation of gender-budget.

Gender equality is a goal that cuts across all other development goals listed in the SDGs. Out of these multiple cross-cutting challenges, the webinar focused on three very distinct areas of gendered challenge. The first pertained to evidence where Professor Ashwini Deshpande discussed the gendered job challenges. “Global data points to rampant inequality between men, women and other genders in accessing opportunities and living a life with dignity. A crucial dimension of life with dignity is access to decent work. This intersection between gendered identity and employment goal is extremely complex and multiple studies show how gendered well-being such as access to leisure for self-development and good health, is not directly linked to access to paid employment for women – which often increase women’s work burden and drudgery. Women’s response to a recovery in the labour market post-pandemic has also pointed to the deep influence of gender-based roles on employment goals,” Professor Deshpande said and observed that women, who were already less likely to find employment, found it extremely harder to keep the job after the prolonged spells of lockdown.

The second area was on Action. Dr. K. G. Santhya, Population Council, New-Delhi focused on the challenges to the well-being of genders that span across the lifecycle – with each age group facing distinct challenges and barriers of their own. Dr. Santhya specifically oriented the audience on the gendered challenges of adolescents in India through the experiences of the UDAYA study.

Professor Lekha Chakraborty, the final speaker, focused on policy and discussed how gender needs can be addressed through Budgeting. It is now widely accepted that gender planning is incomplete without the support of specific and targeted budgetary provisions. The first session discussed the experiences of gender budgeting in India and what can be learned from these to move forward. The programme was attended by around 80 functionaries and scholars working in the areas of rural development and SDGs.

Library Talks on Individual Capacity Building: Pedagogical and Andragogical Tools (from Trainer’s Perspective)

The Centre for Development Documentation and Communication, National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj organised Library Talks on the topic ‘Individual capacity building: Pedagogical and andragogical tools (from trainer’s perspective)’ by Dr. T. Vijaya Kumar, Associate Professor & Training Coordinator, NERC-NIRDPR on 22nd December, 2021, as part of the Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav initiatives of the Institute.

Dr. M. Padmaja, Senior Librarian (CDC) greeted the speaker and the participants. She detailed various activities organised by CDC (Library) as part of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav, such as physical display of books on freedom struggle, the scroll of the titles on homepage of NIRDPR website, dissemination of news articles on Amrit Mahotsav on monthly basis, quiz competition for BVBV School students, and Library Talks.

The Senior Librarian further welcomed the speaker Dr. T. Vijaya Kumar, a senior faculty member who has specialised in psychology of rural development, development management, behavioural and organisational development, community resource mapping and social sector development.

Dr. T. Vijaya Kumar started his talk with an interactive session. He further switched over to presentations on basic questions such as ‘what is capacity’ and ‘capacity building’, which eventually led to a detailed discussion over relevant components of inputs to build capacity. He defined capacity as an individual’s ability to achieve his/her mission and also the organisation’s mission effectively. At this juncture, the speaker noted that an individual’s interest has to be looked down on with reference to the organisation’s interest.

The distinction between teaching and training was explained with illustrations. The speaker also detailed the difference between training and research, and the need of integrating both for the effective functioning of NIRDPR.

The significance of training, which is a prerequisite to fill the gaps in the development process, was put forth by the speaker. The process of building the capacity of the staff at centre and school levels, and grooming of the junior staff by seniors were also made points of discussion.

Dr. T. Vijaya Kumar gave informative inputs through his presentation involving 20 slides spread over knowledge segments of governance, leadership, advocacy skills, training/teaching abilities, mission and strategy. On every alternate slide, questions were raised, discussions took place and clarifications were sought. The concepts in each slide were philosophised and analysed at the grassroots level to make a better understanding of the subject. The session was more interactive and dynamic and reached the level of participants’ satisfaction. The Library Talks concluded with a vote of thanks.

Executive Programme on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Applications

(from left) Prof. Jyothis Sathyapalan, Head, School of Rural Livelihoods & Infrastructure, Shri J. Rama Krishna Rao, IAS, Chief Executive Officer, NISG, Dr. Shivendu, Associate Professor, University of South Florida, Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, IAS, Director General, NIRDPR and Shri Samir Goswami, Advisor, CICT, NIRDPR

The National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj (NIRDPR), Hyderabad in collaboration with Prof. Shivendu, Associate Professor of Information Systems at Muma School of Business, University of South Florida (USF) and National Institute for Smart Government (NISG), organised an Executive Programme on ‘Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning (AI/ML) Applications’ in December 2021.

The programme was designed and organised for the government representatives like Director/Joint Director/Deputy Director, project management teams, nodal officers for e-Governance initiatives and IT personnel of the departments. The objective of the programme was to educate the participants in the area of Artificial Intelligence so that they can support the government departments in 

  • leading and being a part of the team responsible for implementing various AI/ML initiatives.
  • advising on technologies involved in AI/ML solutions and in decision-making of required AI/ML applications.
  • incorporating AI/ML applications to improve governance outcomes.
Prof. Jyothis Sathyapalan, Head, School of Rural Livelihoods & Infrastructure presenting a memento to Shri J. Rama Krishna Rao, IAS, Chief Executive Officer, NISG. Also seen is Dr. Shivendu, Associate Professor, University of South Florida.

The course was delivered through a blended learning approach consisting of both online and offline components. Participants were given access to pre-reading materials via Canvas Learning Management System to acquaint themselves with the course content and concepts.

There was an in-person two-day workshop held at NIRDPR Campus, Hyderabad from 9th-10th December, 2021. Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, IAS, Director General, NIRDPR chaired and addressed the inaugural session of the workshop. He welcomed the participants and shared his own experiences related to Artificial Intelligence and its necessity to improve the performance of various e-Governance initiatives of GoI. Later, a quick overview of the programme was provided by Dr. Shivendu, Associate Professor, University of South Florida. Shri J. Rama Krishna Rao, IAS, Chief Executive Officer, NISG was also present at this occasion and delivered the inaugural address.

The complete course was divided into the following five modules:

  1. Understanding Data
  2. Machine Learning
  3. Artificial Intelligence
  4. ML & AI Applications
  5. Project Presentations (Participants will complete the project assignment and upload their presentations to the LMS)

Instructor-led delivery through classroom workshops served as a medium to clarify concepts and exchange ideas with the objective to make participants fluent in the business application use cases.

A total of 40 participants from diverse streams like agriculture, education and rural development attended the course.  The trainees were given assignments and a project to be submitted at the end of the programme. Online quizzes were conducted in the classroom and the trainees will be given certificates on completion of the project work.

Workshop cum ToT on Good Governance   through Community Participation in Rural Development – Tools and Techniques

Dr. K. Prabhakar, Assistant Professor, Centre for Good Governance & Policy Analysis, NIRDPR (front row, 6th from left) along with participants of the workshop, at Thakur Pyarelal State Institute of Panchayat & Rural Development (TPSIPRD), Nimora, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

On the occasion of Good Governance Week, a campaign was organised during 20th -25th December 2021, under the theme ‘Prashasan Gaon Ki Aur’ aimed at showcasing and replicating the best governance practices at the grassroots level by the National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj (NIRDPR). In this regard, NIRDPR organised a regional workshop cum Training of Trainers (ToT) on ‘Good Governance through Community Participation in Rural Development –Tools and Techniques’ during 20th -24th December, 2021 at Thakur Pyarelal State Institute of Panchayat & Rural Development (TPSIPRD), Nimora, Raipur, Chhattisgarh.

Good Governance is the process for making and implementing decisions. It is not about taking ‘correct’ decisions, but about the best possible process for taking those decisions. Good Governance is a combination of characteristics, namely accountability, transparency, rule of law, responsiveness, equitability and inclusivity, effectiveness, efficiency and participatory.

Community Participation Accountability tools enable development practitioners with the knowledge to generate demand and improve governance at the local, regional, and national levels. Social accountability tools are essential for learning, as many of the public policies are increasingly goal-oriented, aiming for measurable results and goals, and decision-centric.

The workshop cum ToT programme was intended for enhancing the capacities of rural development practitioners, with focused objectives of (a) introducing the participants to the concept of welfare State and its policies (b) identifying governance deficits and gaps in existing policies, (c) enabling participants to learn different community participation tools and techniques and (d) applying those tools for analysing existing flagship programmes of rural development. This programme was undertaken to cover main topics of Good Governance: Concept, Approaches, and Elements & Importance; Design & Applicability of Accountability & Transparency Tools and Techniques like Supply Side Governance FMA and SET Approaches, Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETs), Participatory Budgeting, Budget Analysis, Community Score Card (CSC) and   Citizen Report Card (CRC) with regard to Good Governance through Community Participation in Rural Development.

The five-day training explored tools related to social accountability work at the following three levels:

Defining Issue/ProblemRamificationsTools/Approaches
Monitoring/Accountability–      Weak institutional (formal) monitoring processes –      Weak incentives for service delivery –      Corruption & leakagesCitizen Report Cards Community Score Cards Social Audits
Expenditure Tracking–      Resources fail to reach intended beneficiariesParticipatory  Expenditure  Tracking Studies (PETS)
Budget Allocation–      Spending on wrong goods –      Wrong inclusion/exclusion of target groupsBudget Analysis & Advocacy

The training programmes focused to cover the following modules:

  • Concept, Approaches and Elements of Good Governance
  • Concepts, Approaches, Rational and Tools of Social Accountability
  • Application of Social Accountability Tools Techniques – Budget Analysis, Fund utilisation and Participatory budgeting
  • Application of Social Accountability Tools Techniques – Community Score Card  (CSC)
  • Application of Social Accountability Tools Techniques – Citizen Report card (CRC)

The training programme contents were delivered through a judicious mix of lecture cum discussion, role-playing, debate, hands-on training on CRC, CSC, budget analysis, group exercises, presentation by groups. Field test was planned after the completion of the classroom teaching of the tools.

Totally, 31 participants including Zilla Panchayat Chief Executive Officer, Assistant Director Panchayat, District Coordinator RGSA,  Executive engineer, District Coordinator,  RGSA, DPM, SMIB, NRLM, Assistant Internal Audit and Taxation Officer, Assistant Project Officer, District Project Manager, District Project Manager, Assistant Director, ADPM, Assistant Engineer,  SIRD faculty members, Training Coordinator, Deputy Director Panchayat, Internal Audit and Taxation Officer, Project Officer, NGOs and CBOs participated from Chhattisgarh. On the final day, participants made a presentation on their training and field visit learning especially focussing on Citizen Report Card (CRC) and Community Score Card (CSC) learning experiences. 

During the valedictory of the course, participants responded on taking forward the knowledge they gained from the training programme as follows:

  • Capacity building of staff on Good Governance
  • Usage and implementation of Good Governance tools in PRIs
  • Basic research on Good Governance tools
  • Disseminating the knowledge of the tools among colleagues and other levels
  • Self-awareness of the importance of community-led good governance tools
  • Sensitising service providers, wherever possible, to go for community-led good governance tools for service delivery assessment.
  • People in academics can include this tool as part of lessons on monitoring and evaluation.

At the end of the course, participants prepared a brief video on the ToT.

Dr. K. Prabhakar, Assistant Professor, Centre for Good Governance & Policy Analysis (CGGPA) organised this five-day programme.

NIRDPR Conducts Regional ToT on Social Audit of 15th Finance Commission Grant Utilisation

The 15th Finance Commission (XV FC) has allocated an amount to the tune of Rs. 2,36,805 crore for RLBs for 2021-26. Such a huge allocation must be accompanied by a participatory, transparent and accountable implementation. MoPR, Govt. of India, in consultation with NIRDPR, has prepared and released social audit guidelines for the 15th Finance Commission grant utilisation. In order to build the capacities of social auditors of different States, NIRDPR has planned to organise six regional ToTs. Two ToTs were organised at NIRDPR Hyderabad for the southern States and another at SIRD Meghalaya for the north-eastern States including Sikkim. A five-day Regional Training of Trainers was also conducted at SIRD UP, Lucknow.

Five-day ‘Regional Training of Trainers (ToT) on Social Audit of 15th Finance Commission Grant Utilisation was conducted at State Institute of Rural Development, Meghalaya during 29th November – 03rd December, 2021 for social audit resource persons and SIRD faculty from eight north-eastern States. A total of 38 participants attended and successfully obtained their certificates.

Dr. Rajesh Kumar Sinha, Assistant Professor, Centre for Social Audit, NIRDPR Hyderabad (front row, 1st from right) with the participants

The 15th Finance Commission, in the first report, recommended Rs. 60,750 crore for Rural Local Bodies (RLBs) with 50 per cent of the grant as basic grant (untied) and the remaining 50 per cent as tied grant. In its second report for 2021-26, the XV FC has recommended a total grant of Rs. 2,36,805 crore for RLBs. Out of the total grant to PRIs, 60 per cent was earmarked for national priorities like drinking water supply and rainwater harvesting and sanitation, while 40 per cent is untied and is to be utilised at the discretion of the PRIs for improving basic services. The basic grants are untied and can be used by the PRIs for location-specific felt needs, except for salary or other establishment expenditure. The tied grants can be used for the basic services of (a) sanitation and maintenance of open-defecation free (ODF) status and (b) supply of drinking water, rainwater harvesting and water recycling.

Social audits ensure transparency and accountability, inform and educate people, promote people’s participation in planning, implementation and monitoring of projects, provide a platform for people to express their needs and grievances, improve the capacity of all stakeholders, strengthen local governance and promote democratic decentralisation and complement formal audits. Realising the importance of social audit, the Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Govt. of India had released detailed social audit guidelines in July, 2021.

It is in this context to equip the resource persons from SAUs to take up the social audits of XVFC grant utilisation, six regional TOTs were designed by NIRDPR. The second in this series was the ToT held at SIRD Meghalaya, from 29th November – 03rd December, 2021 for social audit resource persons and SIRD faculty from eight north-eastern States.

Director NIRDPR-NERC delivered the inaugural address. Course Director for the ToT was Dr. Rajesh Kumar Sinha, Assistant Professor, Centre for Social Audit, NIRDPR, Hyderabad and Dr. Srinivas Sajja, Assistant Professor was Co-Director.

Third in the series, a five-day ‘Regional Training of Trainers (ToT) on Social Audit of 15th Finance Commission Grant Utilisation was conducted at SIRD UP, Lucknow from 06th – 10th  December, 2021 for social audit resource persons and SIRD faculty of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 40 participants participated and successfully obtained their certificates. As part of this ToT, participants facilitated the conduct of social audit of XV FC grant utilisation for the FY 2020-21 and 2021-22 in Madaripur and Sultanpur GPs of Bakshi Ka Talab block of Lucknow district which culminated in Gram Sabha in both the GPs. Inaugurating the ToT, the Director General of UP SIRD shared the State’s plan to carry forward the capacity building by organising parallel batches of Block Social Audit Coordinators so that the entire State gets saturated in 3-4 months.

Dr. Srinivas Sajja, Assistant Professor, Centre for Social Audit, NIRDPR Hyderabad was the Course Director for this ToT and Dr. Rajesh Kumar Sinha, Assistant Professor of the Centre was the Co-Course Director.

Workshops on District-Specific SBCC Planning and Implementation for Sustainability of ODF+ & JJM for Karnataka and Telangana States

A slide from the training programme

The State-level virtual workshops on District Specific Social and Behaviour Change (SBCC) Planning and Implementation for Sustainability of Open Defecation Free Plus (ODF+) & Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) for Karnataka and Telangana were organised jointly by Communication Resource Unit (CRU), National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj and United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund on 7th and 14th of December, 2021 respectively. The objectives of the two workshops were

  • To orient all the officials and stakeholders of the respective States, on developing District Level Action Plan keeping in view the SBCC strategies and focussing on sustainability aspect in ODF+ & JJM.
  • Understand the principles of SBCC, channels of communication and tools, identify and adapt sustainable behaviours for SBM, key messages and materials.
  • To discuss and agree roles and responsibilities of relevant department with regarding ODF sustainability and water management at the district level.
  • To develop district specific ODF+ and JJM cost action plan which will also include COVID-19 Appropriate Behaviours (CAB) promotion and compliances.
  • Learn to use tracking tools to review and monitor the SBCC activities and budgets and facilitate as SBCC resource person at the district level.

A total of 70 and 62 participants were present for the workshops, respectively, including District SBM Coordinator, District SBM IEC Consultant, District SBM Training consultant, District Education Officer, District Programme Officer from SSA, District representative of SERP, DEMO/Dy DEMO from the district health department, district representative from ICDS, other staff nominated by District Collector.

The main discussion points of the workshop for Karnataka included:

  • Current status of ODF/ODF+ districts of Karnataka, the gaps and the challenges being faced and possible solutions to address them. Emphasis was given on weekly monitoring and creation of need-based action plans and on providing special hand holding to low performing districts.
  • CRU (Communication Resource Unit) of NIRDPR and its role in providing technical support related to SBCC (Social and Behaviour Change Communication).
  • Strategies for Gram Panchayat’s empowerment for achieving objectives of WASH campaigns, followed by emphasis on improving basic infrastructure, operations and its maintenance.
  • Importance of using the right kind of communication material taking care of the nature of the audience into consideration where behaviour change is targeted.
  • Current issues being faced in WASH, the interrelations of WASH and COVID-19 management, challenges and misconceptions related to hand hygiene, water and ODF+ sustainability and how the pandemic situation could be used to strengthen ongoing approaches pertaining to WASH in Karnataka.
  • Constituting factors affecting SBCC process and their logical connection in identifying solutions in addressing the social problem. 
  • Demonstration with example the template of SBCC costed Plan of Village/ Gram Panchayat Level to be filled and submitted by various districts for the next phase of workshop.

This workshop provided an opportunity to participants and contributed for:

  • Better understanding of the use of SBCC as a powerful means for communication.
  • Enhance knowledge and skills in understanding roles and responsibilities of concerned departments.
  • Increased engagement of district level actors in preparing District Level Action Plan regarding the same.
  • Using tracking tools in monitoring and reviewing SBCC activities at district level.

Similarly, the workshop was organised for Telangana on 14th December, 2021. The workshops were coordinated by Dr. N. V. Madhuri, Associate Professor & Head, CRU,

Ms. Pratibha Chaturvedi, SBCC Coordinator- Training and Knowledge Management, CRU, Ms. Shruti Apsingiker, SBCC Coordinator- Planning and Coordination, CRU, NIRDPR.

Training of State Programme Coordinators and Young Fellows on the Project for Creating Model GP Clusters across India

Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, IAS, Director General, NIRDPR delivering the keynote address

The Centre for Panchayati Raj, Decentralised Planning and Social Service Delivery, (CPRDP&SSD) NIRDPR, organised two training programmes (five days each) on Project for Creating Model GP Clusters (PCMGPCs) in November 2021. Four State Programme Coordinators and 61 Young Fellows attended the first training programme held from 22nd November to 26th November 2021. The participation of two State Programme Coordinators (SPC) and 61 Young Fellows (YF) was recorded in the second programme held from 29th November to 3rd December 2021. These training programmes were organised for SPCs and YFs who have been recruited under the Project for Creating Model GP Clusters across the country. The fundamental objective of these training programmes was to mould the SPCs and YFs to function as change-makers and to take the challenge of transforming common Gram Panchayats into ‘Beacon Gram Panchayats’ which would be replicated by other GPs in all respects.

Dr. Anjan Kumar Bhanja, Associate Professor and Project Coordinator, PMGPCs gave the welcome address in these two training programmes. He highlighted the genesis of Phase-1 Action Research Project and evolution of the Phase- II Action Research Project titled the ‘Project for Creation of 250 Model GP Clusters across India’ to achieve holistic and sustainable development through – institutional strengthening of GPs and enablement of Quality GPDP by providing technical guidance and handholding support to the GPs in preparation and implementation of GPDP in true spirit.

The participants of training programme with Director General, NIRDPR, CPR,DP&SSD faculty and resource persons

Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, IAS, Director General, NIRDPR delivered the keynote address and highlighted the importance of decentralisation and local finance for ensuring effective and efficient local governance. He focused upon some of the critical issues of decentralised governance like own source revenue, devolution of functions, organisational capacity, service delivery mechanism, creation of parallel structures, inadequate public participation and women’s participation and absence of functional and fiscal devolution. He recommended short-term, medium-term and long-term plans for better fiscal decentralisation at the local level.

Shri Sunil Kumar, IAS, Secretary, Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India addressed the participants and highlighted the roles and responsibilities of Young Fellows in mobilising the community, localising SDGs and making Gram Sabha vibrant. He advised the Young Fellows to win the trust of the villagers so that they can accept the Young Fellows and a win-win situation can be established.

Dr. Chandra Sekhar Kumar, IAS, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India also addressed the participants and shared his expectation from the project functionaries. He suggested them to focus on the 29 subjects included in the 11th Schedule of Indian Constitution for localising SDGs with prioritising seven most important goals like No Poverty, No Hunger, Quality Education, Good Health and Well-being, Gender Equality, Clean Water and Sanitation (ODF plus) and Affordable and Clean Energy.

At the end of the training programme, a few of the participants shared their feedback.

“The experienced resource persons enriched our knowledge about the village-level planning process and helped us to understand our role within the project. This training provided enough opportunities for us to interact with the resource persons during deliberations and also gave us ample scope to know the real situation of the field through the field level examples cited by the resource persons, which resulted in a really enjoyable and informative training programme.”

Shri Dadode Mander Ganesh, State Programme Coordinator

I acquired a good clarity regarding the role of various stakeholders of the project and the training helped me immensely in getting conceptual clarity on issues like institutional strengthening, Quality GPDP, localisation of SDGs, evidence-based planning, vibrant Gram Sabha, etc. I could learn the concepts by heart from the sessions of various eminent resource persons. My handholding support to the GP to help them prepare quality GPDP and acquire institutional capacity got bolstered by the learnings from the sessions of Shri Dilip Kumar Pal and Dr. Anjan Kumar Bhanja”.

Ms. Rekha PS, Young Fellow from Ramanathapuram Block of Tamil Nadu

The induction course provided a heuristic approach towards the prevalent issues at the grassroots level. It proved to be a great learning experience, especially with the practical design and planning. The presentations were lucid and engaging; sessions were communicative and informative. The programme successfully illustrated the need for capacity building and strengthening the grassroots.”

-Shri Sambhav Ramaul, Young Fellow from Hamirpur Block of Himachal Pradesh

“This programme was informative, inspirational and provided an opportunity to reflect. Content and presentation by the trainers were of consistently high quality, with a multi-disciplinary focus, ensuring that the subject matter is timely and relevant. PMU staff were receptive to our needs and addressed the same through a customised and highly flexible schedule. The level and nature of participation was encouraging, with ample opportunities for peer learning. Young Fellows have hugely benefitted from the training and the results will be visible when we return to our respective clusters.”

– Shri Athul Balakrishnan, a Young Fellow from Ukrul Block of Manipur

Various sessions in these training programmes were handled by prominent figures in the domain of Panchayati Raj such as Dr. M. N. Roy, IAS (Retd.) Ex-ACS to Government of West Bengal; Shri S. M. Vijayanand, IAS (Retd.) Ex-Secretary, Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Dr. W. R. Reddy, IAS (Retd.), Ex-Director General, NIRDPR, Dr. Joy Elamon, Director General, KILA, Shri Dilip Kumar Pal, Project Team Leader, ARP & PCMGPCs, CPRDP&SSD, NIRDPR, Md. Taqiuddin, Senior Consultant, CPRDP&SSD, NIRDPR, and Shri Bhaskar Pere Patil, Beacon Panchayat Leader.

The programme was coordinated by Dr. Anjan Kumar Bhanja, Associate Professor, CPRDP&SSD, NIRDPR with the support of Project Management Unit Team for Model GP Clusters. 

NIRDPR Observes Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s Death Anniversary

Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, IAS, Director General, NIRDPR offering floral tributes to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

The National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj, Hyderabad paid tributes to Bharat Ratna Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar on his 65th death anniversary on 6th December, 2021. Also known as the father of Indian Constitution, Dr. B.R.Ambedkar was the Chairman of the drafting committee of the Constitution. He was a prominent jurist, politician and fought for the rights of Dalits and women.

On this occasion, the bust of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar in the Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Block of the Institute was garlanded by Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, IAS, Director General, NIRDPR, Shri Shahi Bhushan, FA & DDG in-charge, Dr. M. Srikanth, Registrar & Director (Admin) (i/c). Faculty members and other staff also offered floral tributes. A two-minute silence was observed to mark the occasion.  

Addressing the gathering, Dr. G. Narendra Kumar praised Dr. Ambedkar’s contributions to the Indian Constitution. He mentioned that 6th December was called as Mahaparinirvan Diwas, commemorating the death of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. In his lifetime Dr. Ambedkar completed 69 degrees, spoke nine languages and had a huge library possessed by a single person with 50,000 books.

In his address, Shri Shahi Bhushan recollected the struggles made by Dr. Ambedkar for education, his growth as a scholar, educationist and the chairman of the committee for drafting Indian Constitution.

Orientation of DRDOs & Addl. DRDOs on Model Mandal Samakhya Concept and Workshop on Development of Model Samakhya

Shri Sandeep Kumar Sultania, IAS, Chief Executive Officer (FAC), SERP Telangana addressing the participants

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission Resource Cell (DAY-NRLM RC) at National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj (NIRDPR), Hyderabad organised an orientation programme for DRDOs & Addl. DRDOs of SERP Telangana on Model Mandal Samakhya Concept on 15th December, 2021. A workshop on ‘Development of Model Samakhya to District Project Managers’ (Institution building) was also organised on 6th and 17th December, 2021. A total of 64 participants attended the programmes, representing all districts of Telangana.

Dr. C. Dheeraja, Associate Professor, and Director(i/c), NRLM-RC gave the welcome address and began the orientation on the Model Mandal Samakhya concept, This was followed by opening remarks of Shri Sandeep Kumar Sultania, IAS, Chief Executive Officer (FAC), SERP Telangana. “SERP had been the pioneer of the SHG movement in India, and 20 years down the lane, time has come to improve on the current status and develop newer as well as larger institutions for the poor. These institutions being the primary and secondary level federations have a great role to play in poverty alleviation and livelihood promotion of members,” he said.

A discourse on the vision and need for federations at Telangana was done by resource person Shri G. Bhargava. He explained the daily hurdles faced by a household in poverty and the need for policy and support of implementation structures to uplift the community.

The vision of CBO members and Community-Based Organisations (SHG, VO & Mandal Samkhya), and the need for the development of resources and Model Mandal Samkhya were delivered during the group discussions involving participants and SWOT analysis. Shri T. Ravinder Rao, Mission Manager, NRLM-RC explained the objectives of the Model federation and discussed the key issues and strategies to be adopted.

Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, IAS, Director General, NIRDPR interacted with the participants, who presented the action plans for Model Mandal Samkhya. The workshop on Development of Model Samakhya to District Project Managers (Institution building) had the objectives of sensitising the participants about the process of formation of Model Mandal Samkhya, existing gaps in community institutions and identifying measures to overcome those gaps and challenges.

The DPMs actively engaged in the group activity of brainstorming for identifying the issues of CBOs and their daily functioning. Apart from coming up with approaches to overcome those challenges, they also discussed the implementation strategies at different levels, including the process, roles and responsibilities that lie upon them as other core committees, federation staff and the CBOs. The workshop concluded with a holistic action plan for the next 18 months for each federation with clear-cut activities, expected outputs, timelines, milestones, roles and responsibilities and support required at different levels.

Training Programme on Promotion and Dissemination of Technologies for People’s Action and Rural Development

Science and Technology has revolutionised the present era and brought a new dawn in the sectors of agriculture, housing, energy, health, education, communication, business, transportation and employment. It may also be emphasised that developing suitable technology does not always mean cutting edge research in an advanced laboratory. At the same time, low-cost, appropriate, rural technologies need to be encouraged in every possible way. The necessity of harnessing science and technology for transforming rural India has long been recognised. Even, as early as 1935, Gandhiji initiated a movement called Science for People with an advisory board consisting of national personalities, including eminent scientists like J. C. Bose, P. C. Ray and C. V. Raman.    

In order to achieve the goal of promoting rural technologies, the Centre for CSR, PPP, PA and Training, Research, Consultancy functioning at the NIRDPR Delhi Branch conducted a training programme on ‘Promotion and Dissemination of Technologies for People’s Action and Rural Development’ through online mode on 16th -17th & 20th -21st December, 2021 for the Civil Society Organisations, Voluntary Organisations and other people.

The key objectives of the programme were:

  1. To identify, disseminate, transfer, promote appropriate sustainable innovative rural technologies of Science & Technology institutions, Technology Resource Centres (TRCs) for adaptation in rural areas.
  2. To promote better opportunities in technological options, employment generation and skill development, ultimately for augmentation of income of the varied target groups.
  3. To create more opportunities and avenues due to interaction with rural technology-based professionals.
  4. To customise training modules of different levels of various technology-oriented topics and subjects.
  5. To provide replicable models on various subjects having technological inputs.

Prof. S. Kamaraj, Director, International Institute of Renewable Energy, Coimbatore delivered the welcome speech. He spoke about how science and technology has been put into practical use to improve bottom-line approach for ensuring “sustainability” i.e., economic, ecological and social wellness. The impact of rural technologies has to become more and more visible and their potential needs to be fully exploited.

There were eight sessions (two sessions per day) covering aspects like Technologies for Sustainable Development in Fisheries, Innovative Agriculture Technologies, Low-cost Housing Technologies, Scouting Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITKs), Rural Technology Dissemination by Civil Society Organisations, Technology Interventions in Rural Areas, etc. Senior faculty members of the Institute and experts from other institutions joined the programme as Resource Persons.

The details of the sessions and resource persons are as follows:

  1. Poverty Reduction & Sustainable Development in Fisheries – Prof. G.V. Raju, Head, School of Public Policy and Good Governance, NIRDPR, Hyderabad.
  2. Innovative Agriculture Technologies for Rural Development – Prof. Kalyan Ghadei, Department of Extension Education, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P.
  3. Cost-Effective Housing Technologies And Ecofriendly Building Materials – Er. B. N. Mani, Project Engineer, Centre for Innovations and Appropriate Technology NIRDPR, Hyderabad.
  4. Scouting Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITKs) in the network like NIF’s Honeybee and Benefits to Rural people – Dr. Balaram Sahoo, Retd. Joint Director, Odisha Biological Products Institute, Bhubaneswar, Odisha.
  5. Renewable Energy Adoption for Rural Areas – Dr. M. V. Ravibabu, Associate Professor, Centre for Geoinformatics Applications in Rural Development, NIRDPR, Hyderabad.
  6. Rural Technology Dissemination by Civil Society Organisations /Voluntary Organisations  – Dr. S. Kamaraj, Retd. Professor, Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, Agri. Engineering College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.
  7. Technology Interventions in Rural Areas – Prof. Bakul Rao, Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas (CTARA), Indian Institute of Technology- Bombay (IITB), Mumbai.
  8. Rural Technology Park – Mr. Mohammad Khan, Senior Consultant, Centre for Innovations and Appropriate Technology NIRDPR, Hyderabad.

In total, 37 representatives of CSOs/NGOs from 11 States and a Union Territory (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Delhi, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttara Khand, West Bengal and Andaman & Nicobar) participated in this programme. A few organisations like M S Swaminathan Research Foundation-Kerala Branch, Doctors For You (DFY)-UP, OPDSC-Odisha, Integrated Rural Technology Centre-Kerala, Techno Innovation-UP, Non-conventional Energy and Rural Development Society (NERDS)-Tamil Nadu are involved in the activities like promotion and dissemination of appropriate rural technologies among rural communities.

The programme received a score of 87 per cent overall effectiveness, 80 per cent speaker effectiveness, 92 per cent attitudinal change, 92 per cent knowledge, 97 per cent in course content and 94 per cent skill. 

Dr. Pranab Kumar Ghosh, Programme Director thanked the participants, resource persons and team members and hoped to witness the following outcomes during the post-training period, such as successful transfer of technology and its diffusion, especially economic feasibility, higher confidence level among CSOs/VOs, generation of field level technology promotion proposals by the CSOs/VOs, development of technology-friendly attitude/environment among the CSOs/VOs and mapping of institutions/civil society organisations having their operational areas as well as technical fields.

SIRD/ETC Corner:

Achievement and Activity Report of SIRD&PR, Mizoram for the Year 2020-21

The State Institute of Rural Development & Panchayati Raj, Mizoram conducted 24 training programmes under Ministry of Rural Development funded projects and 52 Ministry of Panchayati Raj (RGSA) training programmes. The total number of training programmes conducted stands at 76.

The performance of research work during this period includes submission of a report on the research project ‘Social Audit Unit in Mizoram: A Process Study’ to NIRDPR, Hyderabad, report on ‘Social impact of MGNREGS works: A Study on Sanitation works in Bilkhawthlir RD Block, Kolasib District: Mizoram’ submitted to NIRDPR, Hyderabad, submission of report on ‘Problems and Prospects of Oil Palm production in Mizoram with special reference to Kolasib District’ to NIRDPR, Hyderabad, Comparative study between annual land productivity of shifting cultivation and Nul farming (Seasonal farming at river bank) in Kolasib District, Mizoram State, India’, collection of data related to ‘Time & Motion Study for MGNREGS Workers’ in collaboration with NIRDPR, submission of draft report of ‘Action Research for adoption of Pukpui village in community hygiene and sanitation’ to NIRDPR, Hyderabad, and submission of draft report of ‘Comparative studies between Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT) and Non-sloping Agricultural Technology in Lunglei District, Mizoram.’

The Land Revenue and Settlement Department, Government of Mizoram, engaged SIRD&PR, Mizoram to conduct the social impact assessment for acquiring land for the construction of 25 towers for 33KV Double Circuit Power Supply from Sihhmui Sub Station to WTP, Mualkhang, Tanhril under State Investment Program Management and Implementation Unit (Urban Development & Poverty Alleviation Department, GoM).

Proposals for recurring grant of SIRD and ETC, RGSA 1st instalment, 2nd tranche, five Job Role Skill Development training under Labour Welfare Board, Mizoram amounting to Rs. 3.9 crore were submitted. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed with Rural Development Department, Govt. of Mizoram on PMAY-G for nodal Institute.

Faculties of SIRD&PR, ETCs and DPRCs attended eight online training programmes during the lockdown. Pu Khawlsiamthanga Khawlhring, Sr. CF(Eco); Dr. Lalhruaitluangi Sailo, C.F (Vety) and Pu C. Lalthlansanga, C.F (RE); Pu H. Rosangpuia, Faculty (SPRC) completed Master Trainer Courses. All core faculties of SIRD&PR, Mizoram completed a one-week online training course on effective communication skills for RD professionals organised by NIRDPR, Hyderabad.

This apart, the SIRD&PR translated Swachh Bharat Mission Guidelines into Mizo from English.

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